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​How to Tissue Culture Dahlia Flowers!

11th Jan 2022

​How to Tissue Culture Dahlia Flowers!

Get to Know About Dahlia

What do you think when you hear about “Dahlia”?

Small and large flowers in a rainbow of colors, right? The colors pop and make the environment so lively.

Do you know, it’s even the national flower of Mexico!

Dahlia is a genus of tuberous, bushy, perennial, and herbaceous plants. It belongs to the family of Asteraceae—a family of sunflowers, daisy, zinnia, and chrysanthemum as well. The genus. Dahlia has 42 species and all have flowers in variable sizes, ranging from small as 5 cm (2 in) diameter or up to 30 cm (1 ft).

Despite being colorful flowers, most of the Dahlia plants do not produce scented flowers. These plants are predominantly, found in Mexico, however, some plant species are also spread to South America. Some plant species are present in Central America, and northern South America.

Conventionally, Dahlias are grown through shoot cuttings. But, using this method to grow plants at the commercial level requires a whole lot of mother plants. It’s also grown using tuberous roots, but that’s not an effective method and is only recommended while amateur cultivation or while producing fewer plants.

In this article, we will talk about the tissue culture method to grow Dahlia. Moreover, we’ll also see what are the benefits and advantages of the technique.

Tissue Culture of Dahlia

Dahlia is a popular garden plant and commercially sold at a large scale in a cut-flower form. This popularity of the plant makes it extensively demanded in the market and exporters. However, conventional or traditional techniques are not enough to produce these plants in a number that can be fulfilling for the market purposes.

That’s why tissue culture works as the best alternative. This technique only utilizes a few tissues to grow or regenerate the whole plant. So, imagine the number of plants that you can grow using a leaf? A lot!

However, there are a number of factors that decides the success of a plant in tissue culture, including:

  • Source of explant
  • Size of explant
  • Mother plant species
  • Positioning of explant in plant media
  • Media composition
  • Part of plant used as explant and many more.

Further, the procedure to culture a specific plant, different protocols, including media composition for the establishment, stem regeneration, and rooting stage is required. Then, what conditions will be suitable for the regenerating plants is an essential factor.

Given below is a protocol for tissue culturing Dahlia using meristem tip explant. This is taken from a study by Gerald G. Wald on meristem tip culture.

One of the common threats of growing Dahlia using the conventional technique is the infection of viral diseases. Among many, Dahlia mosaic virus is the most commonly known. In such a case, meristem culture is useful to grow disease-free plants, because, this part is lesser considered to have any infections normally.

The procedure of Meristem tip culture of Dahlia

Explant: Meristem shoot tip, as shown in the figure below.

Figure: Upper left: An illustration f a typical Dahlia Cane; Right: Boxed area of upper left figure; Lower left: the labeled area is shoot tip, that is to be taken for propagation

Picture Credit: Gerald G. Wald

Explant Excision:

  • Use a microscope to cut out around a shiny dome-shaped structure. Remove primordial leaves for clear visualization of the structure. Make sure not to damage the explant.

Surface sterilization of Explant:

  • Dip and agitate the explant for 5-10 seconds in a surfactant such as a solution of 75% Ethanol, TWEEN-20, or plain detergent.
  • Transfer the explant into a solution of 6 % Calcium Hypochlorite or Sodium Hypochlorite (Clorox ) for about 10 minutes.
  • Drain and rinse in distilled water three or four times.

Culturing:

  • Place the explant in a culture media-containing tube.
  • The media is prepared as:

Take MS media as add following organic substances:


S. No.Substances to be addedConcentration
1.Sucrose30 g/l of medium
2.Vitamins: Thiamine HCl0.4 mg/l of medium
3.I - inositol 100 mg/l of medium
4.Amino Acid: L - tyrosine100 mg/l of medium
5.Kinetin 1 mg/l of medium
6.Indole - 3 acetic acid, IAA 1mg/l of medium
7.Agar7 g/l of medium
  • After 2-3 weeks small propagules can be observed, which will be growing and becoming greener. And, within 6-8 weeks some will show callus formation and some will show shoot growth.

Note: Discard any propagule that’s not showing any growth response after 6-8 weeks.

Rooting:

  • After 6-8 weeks, transfer the plantlets to rooting media, same as culturing media, but with ¼ kinetin added to the media.
  • After a few weeks, you can observe regenerated roots.

Transplanting:

  • After the cultured plants develop a significant root system, remove them and wash the roots gently with distilled water to remove any sticky media from the plant.
  • Transfer the plant to a pot containing dry sand, which was watered until the sand is saturated. Then remove excess water.
  • After 2-4 weeks, you can observe new changes in the plants.

Excel in Your Tissue Culture Processes with PCT

Plant Cell Technology is a one-stop shop for all your tissue culture requirements. You can get here all products ranging from MS media, agar, plant growth hormones, to culture vessels.

Its trademark product, plant preservative mixture (PPM), is popular among scientists to prevent any contamination from your lab. And, not only this, but PCT also provides consulting services to culturists worldwide to help them with their tissue culture processes.

Reach PCT now and learn how can we help you in different ways with your TC processes!

Happy Culturing!!!

Anjali Got some PCT story to share?
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